Assured of their discovery, they published their findings in Science on Wednesday. But now, after analyzing data collected by the Mars Express orbiter over the past 15 years, scientists have come to the stunning conclusion that there is liquid water underneath the South Pole of the planet.
Judging from how radar signals beamed down to Mars bounced back to the spacecraft, the scientists believe they're seeing a 20-kilometer wide shallow body of water, capped by 1.5 kilometers of hard ice. Subsurface echo power is color coded and deep blue corresponds to the strongest reflections, which are interpreted as being caused by the presence of water.
Scientists still don't know just how much or how deep the water is on the planet. If the lake also contains salt deposits, the melting point is reduced even more and keeps the water flowing even at below-freezing temperatures.
If large bodies of liquid water lie beneath Martian polar ice, they could theoretically harbour living microbes to this day.
The area is similar to that of lakes found beneath the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets on Earth, which also were detected using radar scans. (AAP) A provided image shows an artist's impression of the Mars Express spacecraft probing the southern hemisphere of the red planet.
Theoretically, this water could have allowed microbes that have evolved to thrive in saltier conditions a chance at existence, though Orosei believes any potential Martian life would have "not a very pleasant" experience.
He said: "Magnesium, calcium, and sodium could be dissolved in the water to form a brine".
Before we get too excited about drilling 1.5km into the poles of Mars to look for ice, however, we'll probably want independent confirmation that this high-reflectivity region shows up consistently and behaves as if it's liquid water. This is the first spectral detection that unambiguously supports our liquid water-formation hypotheses for RSL.
Roberto Orosei, principal investigator of the MARSIS experiment and lead author of the paper said, "This subsurface anomaly on Mars has radar properties matching water or water-rich sediments", in an ESA statement.
In 2015, the appearance of Mars as a desolate, dry, lifeless planet was significantly challenged after a team of researchers announced it had discovered evidence of running liquid water on its surface. Learning more about these caps can reveal Mars' climate history. After that, the discovery of a liquid lake is groundbreaking news.
Marsis was not able to measure the depth of lake, but the scientists estimate that it must be at least one metre thick.
Gold may capitalize on the dollar's weakness if trade tensions put the currency under additional downward pressure. The U.S. currency was 0.37 percent weaker than the 111.4 handle seen at the end of Friday trade in NY .
The US President has repeatedly shown that flattery, praise and a welcoming atmosphere are the fastest ways to his heart. Instead "maybe he should ask Putin to turn over the 12 people indicted to the United States for trial", Podesta said.
Thankfully it seems she's going to be OK. " Every day is a battle ", she said. "Her honesty has helped so many others". The former Jonas Brothers singer, who dated Demi in 2009, says he is thinking about her.
Cellphone video taken by a witness showed the boat struggling to move on the water before it was hit by waves and then sank. Memorials have been held in Missouri , with 300 people gathered in the vehicle park of Ride the Ducks of Branson.
Colman is replacing actor Claire Foy , who played the queen in her younger years, from coronation through the Suez Canal crisis. Netlix has yet to confirm when season 3 will air, but reports have suggested sometime in 2019.
The fusillade followed a July 25 decision by a court in in the western province of Izmir to move Brunson into house arrest . The global situation "must change", said Sam Brownback, U.S. ambassador at large for worldwide religious freedom.
The declaration was odd given the topic being discussed was whether the President would support a Hard Brexit for the UK. Around 50 percent think the visit should go ahead, compared with 37 percent who think the visit should be canceled.
At this point, Cohen has not has any conversations with prosecutors in the Southern District of NY , one source says. His tweet indicates falling out between the two is complete - Trump had earlier said he didn't expect Cohen to flip.
Jenner admitted during the interview that her natural lips had been " an insecurity " that she wanted to change. Of course, we live in the age of social media and that has really helped Kylie reach her fans and customers.
Severe Thunderstorms In Forecast Tuesday
Some severe thunderstorms with the potential for flooding are making their way to the borough, forecasts show. Next week with highs staying in the upper 80s-low 90s will keep an eye on the models for storm chances.
Nadal: Novak will be a tough opponent
Through five wins in London, the 31-year-old has dropped just two sets and has wrapped up every match in less than three hours. Yet the latter is in the better form overall and remains formidable once he gets to the business end of a tournament.