Assured of their discovery, they published their findings in Science on Wednesday. But now, after analyzing data collected by the Mars Express orbiter over the past 15 years, scientists have come to the stunning conclusion that there is liquid water underneath the South Pole of the planet.
Judging from how radar signals beamed down to Mars bounced back to the spacecraft, the scientists believe they're seeing a 20-kilometer wide shallow body of water, capped by 1.5 kilometers of hard ice. Subsurface echo power is color coded and deep blue corresponds to the strongest reflections, which are interpreted as being caused by the presence of water.
Scientists still don't know just how much or how deep the water is on the planet. If the lake also contains salt deposits, the melting point is reduced even more and keeps the water flowing even at below-freezing temperatures.
If large bodies of liquid water lie beneath Martian polar ice, they could theoretically harbour living microbes to this day.
The area is similar to that of lakes found beneath the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets on Earth, which also were detected using radar scans. (AAP) A provided image shows an artist's impression of the Mars Express spacecraft probing the southern hemisphere of the red planet.
Theoretically, this water could have allowed microbes that have evolved to thrive in saltier conditions a chance at existence, though Orosei believes any potential Martian life would have "not a very pleasant" experience.
He said: "Magnesium, calcium, and sodium could be dissolved in the water to form a brine".
Before we get too excited about drilling 1.5km into the poles of Mars to look for ice, however, we'll probably want independent confirmation that this high-reflectivity region shows up consistently and behaves as if it's liquid water. This is the first spectral detection that unambiguously supports our liquid water-formation hypotheses for RSL.
Roberto Orosei, principal investigator of the MARSIS experiment and lead author of the paper said, "This subsurface anomaly on Mars has radar properties matching water or water-rich sediments", in an ESA statement.
In 2015, the appearance of Mars as a desolate, dry, lifeless planet was significantly challenged after a team of researchers announced it had discovered evidence of running liquid water on its surface. Learning more about these caps can reveal Mars' climate history. After that, the discovery of a liquid lake is groundbreaking news.
Marsis was not able to measure the depth of lake, but the scientists estimate that it must be at least one metre thick.
With each pixel measuring 0.8 micrometers, the sensor measure only 8 mm, just large enough for a 1/2-inch type sensor. To counter this, Sony talks up its pixel combining technology, which it says equates to 1.6µm at 12-megapixels.
Trump had viewed Porter as "an honest broker" who would "make sure" different opinions were being "faithfully presented to him". The report adds, "We further assess Putin and the Russian Government developed a clear preference for President-elect Trump".
It proved a rough outing for the Old Mill High graduate, who allowed four hits and three runs in just one-third of an inning. Josh Hader came out of the bullpen to start the eighth inning and struggled with his control throughout the brief outing.
Israeli forces and settlers pulled out of Gaza in 2005 and the enclave is now ruled by the Islamist group Hamas. Kanou called on the global community to "break its silence towards Israeli crimes against humanity".
'He's so young and in two years it is another European Championships and then in four years another World Cup. "English football has signed an exceptional player". "I am not disappointed", said Guardiola.
McConnell addressed recent protests he's encountered over immigration policies of the Trump administration. Those protesting are calling on Florida Senators Bill Nelson and Marco Rubio to reject the nomination.
The higher you are, the better, because the Sun will be barely clearing the horizon as the Moon sets in the opposite direction. For viewers across India, the eclipse , both partial and total, will be visible in its entirety from all parts of the country.
Some severe thunderstorms with the potential for flooding are making their way to the borough, forecasts show. Next week with highs staying in the upper 80s-low 90s will keep an eye on the models for storm chances.
The US President has repeatedly shown that flattery, praise and a welcoming atmosphere are the fastest ways to his heart. Instead "maybe he should ask Putin to turn over the 12 people indicted to the United States for trial", Podesta said.
China won’t devalue yuan to boost exports
Gold may capitalize on the dollar's weakness if trade tensions put the currency under additional downward pressure. The U.S. currency was 0.37 percent weaker than the 111.4 handle seen at the end of Friday trade in NY .
Kawhi has arrived in Toronto… and he’s even smiling
Under the leadership of DeRozan and All-Star guard Kyle Lowry , the Raptors reached the Eastern Conference finals in 2016. He said he was not as clear as he should have been with DeRozan when they talked earlier this month.
'Let me die': Survivor of deadly duck boat tragedy speaks
Cellphone video taken by a witness showed the boat struggling to move on the water before it was hit by waves and then sank. Memorials have been held in Missouri , with 300 people gathered in the vehicle park of Ride the Ducks of Branson.
New Moons Discovered for Jupiter, Including One 'Oddball'
The announcement of the new moons was published Tuesday in the International Astronomical Union Minor Planet Electronic Circular . Two of the newly discovered satellites orbit with a group that are in between the outer group and the Galilean moons.
Trump Calls EU 'a Foe' Ahead of Putin Meeting
President Trump has raised eyebrows ahead of his meeting with Putin regarding who he feels are the enemies of the United States. But that doesn't mean they are bad. "They want to do well and we want to do well, and we're starting to do well".